Chapter 72 Therefore, evil is not the cause of anything through evil itself, but only accidentally. Therefore, the participation-of divine goodness by created things is accomplished by divine providence. [10] Since, however, it is proper to God Himself to know His own substance perfectly, the aforesaid light is a likeness of God, inasmuch as it conduces to the seeing of God’s substance. Hence. Chapter 52 1 cap. Therefore, the rational plan of divine providence demands that other creatures be ruled by intellectual creatures. But every act has something of good in its essential character, for there is no evil thing that is not in a condition of potency falling short of its act. And so, it is ordered to an end, and is not itself the ultimate end. But divine substance cannot be understood in this way, as we showed above. But even contingent singulars participate in divine goodness. Now, the ultimate end of the intellect is the vision of the divine substance as we showed above. So, it is not present in the power of sight as its subject, but, rather, in the animal. [12] Now, in moral actions we find four principles arranged in a definite order. Chapter 76 In fact, he says in Book IX of The Trinity: “Just as the mind gathers knowledge of bodily things through the bodily senses, so does it obtain knowledge of incorporeal things through itself. So, felicity ought to be some good which man may attain by his own will. Therefore, being is the proper product of the primary agent, that is, of God; and all things that give being do so because they act by God’s power. [10] Nor is it a necessary conclusion that, if we succeed in knowing what the soul is through the speculative sciences, we must then be able to reach a knowledge of what separate substances are, through these same sciences. Chapter 29 [2] Now, the aforementioned light is a certain principle of divine knowledge, because the created intellect is elevated by it to the seeing of the divine substance. Therefore, an intellectual substance tends to divine knowledge as an ultimate end. Rather, in so far as it is evil, evil is the privation of good. [7] Besides, a thing has the greatest desire for its ultimate end. And for this reason the celestial power is enough, without a univocal agent, to produce some imperfect forms. there were an order of goodness in them, in the sense that some of them are better than others. [23530] Contra Gentiles, lib. [8] Besides, if an agent did not incline toward some definite effect, all results would be a matter of indifference for him. A further motive, quite unexpected, was supplied by the University of Oxford in 1902 placing the Summa Contra Gentiles on the list of subjects which a candidate may at his ANSWERS TO THESE ARGUMENTS Thus, it is said by one who speaks for God: “Man shall not see me and live” (Exod. [5] Thus it is that, in order to indicate the variation in this felicity, the Lord says: “In My Father’s house there are many mansions” (John 14:2). Therefore, the preceding position is incompatible with divine wisdom. Now, there is no question that intellectual agents act for the sake of an end, because they think ahead of time in their intellects of the things which they achieve through action; and their action stems from such preconception. 9 n. 4, [23551] Contra Gentiles, lib. [14] For these and like reasons, Alexander and Averroes claimed that man’s ultimate felicity does not consist in the human knowledge which comes through the speculative sciences, but through a connection with a separate substance, which they believed to be possible for man in this life. Now, glory, in the sense of fame, is the least permanent of things; in fact, nothing is more variable than opinion and human praise. Therefore, intellectual creatures by their operation are motivating and regulative of other creatures. [2] For there is in man, in so far as he is intellectual, one type of desire, concerned with the knowledge of truth; indeed, men seek to fulfill this desire by the effort of the contemplative life. And this seeing of the divine substance can be done without comprehension of it. [21] Now, it is easy to break down the arguments which they bring forward. So, in this strict meaning of privation, there is always the rational character of evil. Therefore, it is the same being that makes all blessed; yet they do not all grasp happiness therefrom in equal degree. 1 n. 6 Eiusdem autem est unum contrariorum prosequi et aliud refutare sicut medicina, quae sanitatem operatur, aegritudinem excludit. So, from this they conclude that no body is active but only passive. [2] Again, whatever type of creature carries out the order of divine providence, it is able to do so because it participates in something of the power of the first providential being; just as an instrument does not move unless, through being moved, it participates somewhat in the power of the principal agent. This is clearly the case with a man who wills to enjoy a woman for the sake of pleasure, to which pleasure there is attached the disorder of adultery. gut the power of a lower agent depends on the power of the superior agent, according as the superior agent gives this power to the lower agent whereby it may act; or preserves it; or even applies it to the action, as the artisan applies an instrument to its proper effect, though he neither gives the form whereby the instrument works, nor preserves it, but simply gives it motion. [4] Besides, if a given action is done in time, this will be either because the principle of the action is in time-in this sense the actions of temporal things are temporal; or because of the terminus of the operation, as in the case of spiritual substances which are above time but perform their actions on things subject to time. Chapter 68 Chapter 8 Therefore, they are capable of ruling the lower intellectual natures. And so, in the case of the healing of an afflicted person, accomplished miraculously, it makes no difference whether the person is much or little afflicted. These two things, then, man can do through an intellectual habit. [4] Besides, as a Particular cause is to a particular effect, so is a universal cause to a universal effect. [14] Besides, the right order of things is in agreement with the order of nature, for natural things are ordered to their end without error. And so, felicity in its perfect character cannot be present in men, but they may participate somewhat in it, even in this life. [8] Hence it is said: “God created, that all things might be” (Wis. 1:14). [2] Now, according to Tully, glory is “widespread repute accompanied by praise of a person.” And according to Ambrose, it is “an illustrious reputation accompanied by praise.” Now, men desire to become known in connection with some sort of praise and renown, for the purpose of being honored by those who know them. But it is possible for a bad man to attain honor. So, the highest good for man cannot be glory, for it consists in the fact that a person is well known. [15] Hence it is said: “Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing: and not one of them shall fall on the ground without My Father” (Matt. [6] Furthermore, just as art work presupposes a work of nature, so does a work of nature presuppose the work of God the creator. But the divine substance is always viewed with wonder by any created intellect, since no created intellect comprehends it. So, this good must be the primary cause of the evil. But celestial bodies are more like intellectual substances than are other bodies because the former are incorruptible. 3:20-21). Indeed, we said that evil occurs apart from the intention of the agent, and that he always intends a definite good, and that it consequently implies the exclusion of another good which is contrary to it. [2] Whatever exists in another thing as in its subject must have some cause, for it is caused either by the principles of the subject or by some extrinsic cause. Therefore, it is inappropriate to say that things do not have their own actions. Chapter 9 So, too, for this reason it tends to its own good, because it tends to the divine likeness, and not conversely. Hence, Dionysius says that “the heavenly intellectual essences first give divine illumination to themselves, and then bring us manifestations which are above us.” Also, the lower bodies are ordered by the higher ones. Therefore, it would be against the very character of providence if liberty of will were removed. But it pertains to the providence of the governor to preserve perfection in the things governed, and not to decrease it. For the intention of the principal agent and that of the instrument are directed toward the same thing. But, if He gives them universal regulations for their commands, since universal regulations cannot be applied in all cases, to particulars, especially in the case of variable things that do not always remain the same, these secondary or tertiary overseers would have to give orders at times that are contrary to the regulations given them for the things subject to their control. [23554] Contra Gentiles, lib. Hence, no one should get the impression that the latter is moved violently, as is the case with heavy and light bodies that are moved by us through understanding. Therefore, that which is the highest good is, from the highest point of view, the end of all things. Therefore, power is not man’s highest good. Summa Contra Gentiles, Book I, chapters 1-9. [1] Since all creatures, even those devoid of understanding, are ordered to God as to an ultimate end, all achieve this end to the extent that they participate somewhat in His likeness. Unde nec demonstrationis vim habent, sed vel sunt rationes probabiles vel sophisticae. But no substance is lower than corporeal substance. Of course, this position both takes away true happiness from the rational creature, for it can consist in nothing other than a vision of divine substance, as we have shown; and it also contradicts the text of Sacred Scripture, as is evident from the preceding texts. For a house is made for this purpose only, and so this must be included in the definition of a house if the definition is to be perfect. However, the created intellect sees the divine substance through the essence of God, as through something other than itself. So, in order that the divine essence may become the intelligible species for a created intellect, which is needed in order that the divine substance may be seen, it is necessary for the created intellect to be elevated for this purpose by a more sublime disposition. But no ruler’s dignity is comparable to the dignity of the divine rule. Now, the being of the divine substance is in eternity, or, rather, is eternity itself. Now, it is pertinent to the propriety of order that nothing be left in disorder. And then there is an end which takes precedence in existing being, just as it precedes in the causal order. So, it is necessary to the perfection of things that there should also be some accidental causes. And this is plainly false. Now, this is done when one makes available some good for those that have less, from the abundance of those that have more. Now, in the case of things that are naturally known no one can err; for instance, in the knowing of indemonstrable principles no one makes an error. Latin and English. Nor can we attribute the defect to chance or accident, for then there would be no moral fault in us, since chance events are not premeditated and are beyond the control of reason. [4] Besides, suppose that two things are not united at first, and then later they are united; this must be done by changing both of them, or at least one. [3] Again, a defect in an effect and in an action results from some defect in the principles of the action; for instance, the birth of a monstrosity results from some corruption of the semen, and lameness results from a bending of the leg bone. But the will moves the intellect rather accidentally, that is, in so far as the act of understanding is itself apprehended as good, and so is desired by the will, with the result that the intellect actually understands. Hence, also, some of these people are said to claim that indivisible bodies (out of which, they say, all substances are composed and which alone, according to them, possess stability) could last for about an hour if God were to withdraw His governance from things. Hence, if some perfection is more perfectly participated by a group of things the more they approach a certain object, then this is an indication that this object is the cause of the perfection which is participated in various degrees. Hence, since the agent intellect, according to Alexander, is supposed to be an eternal separate substance, it will be impossible for the agent intellect to become the form of the habitual intellect. Indeed, it would be foolish to make war merely for its own sake. [23535] Contra Gentiles, lib. Hence, it seems that the forms of these beings come from higher principles; by the same reasoning, so do other forms, some of which are much more noble. Yet, if it were false and empty, felicity could not consist in such knowledge. Of course, if this defect be natural, then it is always attached to the will, and so the will would always commit a morally bad action when it acts. And so, of those who see Him, one may see His substance more or less than another, depending on whether one is more or less near to Him. The order of things must, then, be present in the secondary agents of providence, not merely universally, but also in respect to singulars; otherwise, they could not establish, order in singulars by their providence. [5] Furthermore, in all powers arranged in an order, one is directive in relation to the next, and it knows the rational plan best. Now, a man would not believe in things that are unseen but proposed to him by another man unless he thought that this other man had more perfect knowledge of these proposed things than he himself who does not see them. Such are the celestial bodies whose motions occur in ever the same way. Now, we showed above that all things possessing being in any way whatever are God’s products, and also that God makes all things for an end which is Himself. Online Text Editor Because the Aquinas Institute’s mission is to make the works of Aquinas as widely available as possible, we put all of our bilingual editions online for free. Now, that which acts by the power of another produces an effect similar not only to itself but more especially to that by whose power it acts. Rather, the form is required so that the species may be complete. For, just as they are caused by the substantial form which, together with matter, is the cause of all the proper accidents, these accidental forms also act by the power of the substantial form. Therefore, according to the aforesaid theory, it would be impossible to attribute to man either the action of the possible intellect as it understands or the action of the agent intellect as it understands separate substances or as it makes things actually understood. [3] Again, that which is in potency to either of two contraries is not advanced to actuality under one of them unless through some cause, for no potency makes itself be in act. And this is true in general whether we are talking about sensory or intellectual vision. And for this reason we even suffer boredom in the use of our intellect, after a long or strenuous meditation, because our powers that make use of the bodily organs become tired, and intellectual thinking cannot be accomplished without these. 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